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BoxNairobi, Kenya. In Rwanda, the prevalence of viral hepatitis HCV is poorly understood. Proquest dissertations & theses database current study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of HCV infection in Rwanda. A total of patients attending Rwanda Military Hospital were randomly selected and a questionnaire was administered to determine the risk factors. Blood was collected and screened for anti-HCV antibodies and seropositive samples dissertation on hcv subjected to polymerase chain reaction method. Hematology abnormalities in the HCV infected patients were also investigated.

Prevalence was highest There was a significant relationship between place of residence and HCV infection with residents of Southern Province having significantly higher dissertation on hcv. The hematological abnormalities observed in the HCV infected patients included dissertation on hcv Further studies to determine the factors causing the high prevalence of HCV in Rwanda are recommended. Globally, about — million people are living with chronic HCV infection [ 1 ] with about dissertation on hcv, lives lost every year [ 2 dissertation on hcv, 3 ]. Infection begins as acute and usually asymptomatic apa research paper on ptsd early stages [ 45 ]. In most untreated cases, the infection progresses into chronic infections and gradually develops liver fibrosis which then dissertation on hcv to cirrhosis, liver damage, and hepatocellular carcinoma HCC [ 6 ].

In Dissertation on hcv, the prevalence of HCV is between 0. In Rwanda, prevalence of HCV infection has been reported in specific groups of the populations such as in pregnant women and in patients infected with tuberculosis and HIV [ 7 — 10 ]. However, the prevalence of HCV for the general population is not clear. A prevalence of 4. This is because of challenges such as barriers to screening, cost-related factors, and inadequate bouncing balls physics coursework and awareness of hepatitis C [ 13 ].

There are many risk factors of acquiring HCV infection. In the Sub-Saharan Africa, practices such as dental surgery, therapeutic injection, intravenous drug, and age have been reported as major risk factors associated with HCV infection [ 14 — 16 ]. In Rwanda, the exact risk factors of HCV infection are not clear. The aims of the current study were to determine the prevalence, hematological abnormalities, and risk factors associated with HCV infection in patients attending Rwanda Military Hospital RMHa national referral hospital in Rwanda. The hospital provides health care services to around dissertation on hcv, to 50, english language travel writing coursework dissertation on hcv military personnel every year.

The study utilized out-patients referred for laboratory examination and who were 18 years and above. Using Kish Leslie formula [ 17 ] for cross-sectional studies and an average prevalence of 3. The sample size was spread across a two-month period and subsequently divided into 9 patients per day per month. Information about the dissertation on hcv was given in English, French, or Kinyarwanda. A structured questionnaire to obtain bio-data and exposure risks such as blood transfusion, organ transplantation, living with HCV dissertation on hcv patients, hospital admission, previous surgery, and hospitalization; accidental needle stick injuries treated by traditional doctor and travelling dissertation on hcv were also administered.

The sensitivity and specificity of the dissertation on hcv used are Full blood count including white blood cell differential counts was determined. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESR was also measured using Westergren method [ 20 dissertation on hcv. Detection of viremia was recorded as target detected or dissertation on hcv not detected. A value of less than 0. Of the study participants, The mean age of the dissertation on hcv was The demographic characteristics of the study participants are shown in Table 1.

Serological testing for HCV of all participants revealed that Thus, an overall active HCV prevalence of 9. Prevalence of active HCV infection creative writing quora higher 9. However, this was not significantTable 2. The participants were divided into three age categories. Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in Dissertation on hcv general, it was observed that prevalence of active HCV infection increased significantly with increasing age Table 3. In contrast, there was a significant ; relationship between participants place of residence and active RNA infection. However, no significant relationship was found. Comparison of risk factors of acquiring HCV infection among participants was also analyzed Table 5.

It was observed that participants who had received injection from traditional practitioners had a significant chance of having HCV infection. Similarly, persons who had lost a relative through hepatitis C HC dissertation on hcv those with no educational dissertation on hcv were more likely to have HCV infection. Hematological abnormalities observed among dissertation on hcv HCV infected participants were leukocytopenia The prevalence of neutrophil abnormalities neutropenia was significantly higher in males than in females.

Leukocytopenia was more iana port assignments but not significant in males In doctor of ministry no dissertation, thrombocytopenia was more common in females Only one female 5. Overall 5 Viral hepatitis is a major infectious disease of global concern [ 23 ]. In Sub-Saharan Africa, viral hepatitis due to HCV infection is dissertation on hcv prevalent but the extent of the disease burden may be underreported [ 1224 ].

Prevalence of HCV infection dissertation on hcv across different regions and populations [ 25 ]. In Africa, prevalence of HCV infection reported so far has focused dissertation on hcv a specific group of the population mostly relying on the error-prone antibody testing dissertation on hcv [ 9 dissertation on hcv, 102627 ]. In this study, participants were first screened against the presence of HCV antibodies using rapid diagnostic strips. Seropositive cases were then subjected writing a literary review dissertation the more best friend role model essay polymerase chain reaction method.

A high seroprevalence of This figure is comparatively higher than the 1. This test has However, the assay generally lacks the dissertation on hcv ability to differentiate between antibodies resulting from dissertation on hcv infection and previously cleared infection [ 28 ]. It is recommended that all patients having anti-HCV antibodies are subjected to further confirmatory testing essay on types of forest eliminating such false positives dissertation on hcv 29 ].

In this study, the overall prevalence of active HCV infection was 9. This prevalence indicates the cost-effectiveness of screening using serological tests and confirmation by RNA. Dissertation on hcv study noted infection was higher in males than dissertation on hcv females. Many studies have reported similar findings [ 30 ]. This high infection rate in males than in females may be due to spontaneous clearance of acute infection in females [ 31 ]. The reason to this clearance has been attributed occurrence of certain genetic factors dissertation on hcv as IL28B genetic variants in females [ 532 ]. Indeed even the hematological abnormalities noted in this study were more in males than females; however dissertation on hcv is a significant association of HCV infection and thrombocytopenia; this association dissertation on hcv been reported earlier [ 33 ].

Similarly, prevalence of active Dissertation on hcv infection increased significantly with age and this has been reported in Uganda [ 34 ] and in Madagascar [ 16 ] and this may be due to frequent exposure [ 35 ]. A example expository essay outline format the high prevalence being reported in patients older than 55 analysis writing for hire ca, more screening for HCV can focus on this age group.

In developing countries dissertation on hcv risk factors associated with acquiring HCV infection have been reported in various studies. Identification of risk factor enables appropriate control strategies to be developed. In this study hospital based risk factors were not found to be significant. This is in contrast to a study dissertation on hcv Ethiopia where history of hospitalization, tooth extraction, and blood transfusion were identified as major risk dissertation on hcv HCV infection [ 27 ].

This high prevalence may imply that transmission via sex is important in Rwanda. In order to break the cycle of HCV transmission, it is highly recommended that, screening among sexually active individuals be performed. A significant observation made from this study is dissertation on hcv HCV prevalence was highest among persons residing in Southern Rwanda followed by Western Rwanda. The high prevalence of infection in this part of Rwanda may be due to migration of persons at the border with Burundi where prevalence is highest dissertation on hcv East Africa [ 12 ].

It is therefore recommended that more screening page numbering dissertation word persons living in Southern Rwanda and at various ports of entry be done. Even though their values may not play a role in diagnosis of HCV, they may dissertation on hcv important in disease management [ 3536 ].

They were however not tested due to the limitation of the study design. Liver biopsy was also not performed dissertation on hcv this study due to obvious reasons such as cost, risk of complications, and need for additional health care resources [ 37 ]. The study was also unable to explore the issues relating to prevalence dissertation on hcv HIV and HBV coinfections with HCV as these two infections have been dissertation on hcv to impact negatively the clinical course of chronic HCV infection [ 38 — 40 ]. With dissertation on hcv high prevalence 9. The current study shows a high prevalence of HCV infection in Rwanda. Infection was more likely to occur in i have a dream writing paper persons custom scholarship essay writer websites usa younger ones.

Unsafe injections by traditional practitioners were of significant exposure risk of contracting HCV infection. Although, hematological abnormalities observed in this study were widespread among infected participants. This study indicates the need for a larger study to ascertain extent of HCV infections dissertation on hcv Rwanda. The authors wish to thank Dr.

Ben Karenzi and Dr. Emmanuel Indahiro for dissertation on hcv swift responses in making this study a success, the how to write a discursive essay staff of the RMH dissertation on hcv their technical supports, and Mr. Taylor for his assistance. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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